Gender Identity, Marriage, and Labor Supply: From Education and Rural-urban Differences Aspects

Abstract

This paper investigates the factor that affects the labor supply of female from the view of gender identity norms, and analyzes how the education can influence the gender identity and then affect the labor supply of female. Furthermore, this paper also studies the impact of gender identity on the labor supply of male. Using the data of China Population Census of 2005, this paper finds that: (1) Within marriage markets, when a randomly chosen woman’s income is more likey to exceed a randomly chosen man’s, the marriage rates decline. The result indicates that there exists the gender identity norms that a man should earn more than his wife in China. (2) In couples where the wife’s potential income is more likely to exceed the husband’s, the wife is less likely to be in the labor force. Moreover, this negative effect is much larger on the wives who are in the group of lower education level. It reveals that a higher education level of wife would mitigate the negative effect of gender identity on the female labor force participation. (3) For those wives who do work, the wives who are in the group of higher education level would earn more than her potential, while the wives who are in the group of lower education level would earn less than her potential. These results show that the gender identity norms plays a leading role on the wives who are in the group of lower education level and the comparative advantage hypothesis plays a leading role on the wives who are in the group of higher education level. Besides, the gender identity norms has an impact on the labor supply of the husbands which the husbands would earn more than his potential. (4) The gender identity norms has much larger effects on those who are from rural and in the group of lower educationa level.

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